Just how far did the ruler push his own perceived mortality?
By Jocelyn Hitchcock, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
Julius Caesar is no stranger in history books. He has been encapsulated in plays, songs, parodies, and even Hollywood movies that paint him as a revered war general, a fearsome ruler, and one of the staunchest Romans you are sure to meet in antiquity. He represents a catapultic change in the Roman government, serving as an emblematic figure of the Fall of the Republic (though he would personally never admit to that, of course). His successor, Octavian Augustus, was Rome’s first emperor, and ushering in centuries of single hand rule.
However, Augustus’ position would not have been possible had it not been for Caesar’s careful and meticulous testing of Roman ideals and values in the 50’s and 40’s BCE. During his life, and certainly after, speculation swirled around the General about whether or not he was touting himself as a God and/or a king. Even though the ruling style of Rome turned imperial and monarchical, during Caesar’s time the title of “King” was highly offensive and considered dangerous to the Romans. They had a sharp objection to monarchy, as they still believed their precious Republic was not dead yet.
The Republic of Serbia is one of the states that made up the former Yugoslavia, which broke up in the bloody wars that occurred during the 1990s. Since history immemorial, this region on the Balkan Peninsula has been the scene of various political and cultural influences… and has resulted in a famous trek: The routes of the Roman Emperors.
The routes of the Roman Emperors are based on the fact that the Romans conquered Croatia, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria… and that 19 emperors were born in this territory. The routes lead through ancient Roman cities, palaces, and fortifications in these countries.
As far as Serbia is concerned, this tourist and archaeological project includes a 600 km long route with several ancient Roman sites, including cities and places of birth of 17 out of the 19 Roman emperors.
But let us take a look at a few of the more interesting ‘Serbian’ Roman Emperors.
By Ben Potter, Contributing Writer, Classical Wisdom
Many folks see the Etruscan civilization as merely a segue, a follow up to the Greeks and a foreshadowing to the Romans. But casting this ancient society as a sideline character might not do them enough justice.
Indeed, despite the importance of Etruria (the wider region of the Etruscans) in its context as a link between the ancient worlds of the Greeks and the Romans, modern thought considers Etruscan civilization ‘far superior to the traditional picture of a poor relation of Greece and a mysterious prelude to Rome.’
This new found appreciation of the Etruscans can be most clearly seen in its art and architecture – and distinguishing where they leave off from the Greeks and create their own individual style.
We all know the phrase “All roads lead to Rome”. Today, it is used proverbially and has come to mean something like “there is more than one way to reach the same goal”. But did all roads ever really lead to the eternal city?
The Power of Pavement
There was a close connection between roads and imperial power. In 27 BC, the emperor Augustus supervised the restoration of the via Flaminia, the major route leading northwards from Rome to the Adriatic coast and the port of Rimini. The restoration of Italy’s roads was a key part of Augustus’ renovation program after civil wars had ravaged the peninsula for decades. An arch erected on the via Flaminia tells us that it and most other commonly used roads in Italy were restored “at his own expense”.
And road paving was expensive indeed – it had not been common under the Republic, except in stretches close to towns. Augustus and his successors lavished attention on the road network as roads meant trade, and trade meant money.
by Mary E. Naples, M.A.
Who were Demeter and Persephone and why did their myth resonate so strongly with women of ancient Greece? The story of Demeter, goddess of the harvest, and her daughter Persephone, queen of the underworld, has inspired many. And while there are twenty-two variations of the myth, it is the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (hereafter called the Hymn), composed between 650-550 BCE, that is believed to be one of the oldest.
However, the episode that leads up to the narrative found in the Hymn is as important as their story itself, as it sets the tone straight away. It starts with Zeus, lord of the gods, who rapes his sister Demeter, and the product of that rape is Persephone. They never married. Indeed, Zeus would have been the husband to hundreds if he married everyone he raped.
The famous Hymn then begins with the reciting of Zeus’ agreement with Hades in regards to Persephone. To be sure, his being an absentee father did not stop Zeus from arranging the marriage of his daughter – unbeknownst to either her or her mother – to his brother—Hades, the lord of the underworld.
By NATALIA KLIMCZAK
Constantine the Great is known in history as the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity. However, legends and archaeological evidence suggest a different story– it seems that Constantine had a secret about his faith which was hidden for centuries.
Constantine built many churches. He celebrated the faith in one (Christian) God and his son Jesus by creating many of the greatest churches of the world, including: St. Peter’s in Rome, The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, The Eleona on the Mount of Olives, The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, and others.
***Editor’s Note: St. Peter’s Basilica was commissioned by Pope Julius II in the 6th Century, which replaced the original 4th Century structure which had indeed been built by Constantine. This is to say that the current St. Peter’s Basilica is not the one built by Constantine.***